Member States can develop a more detailed bilateral implementing protocol under EU readmission agreements. Finland only concluded such a protocol with Russia in 2013. 1. Readmission agreements between the EU and a third country replace the agreements of an EU Member State with the same country, although this may not be the case for DK and possibly IE and uk, as these EU Member States may choose not to participate in the relevant EU agreement (opt-in).2. For more information, see the European Commission`s readmission website. There are also other agreements and memoranda of understanding on readmission. An agreement between the European Union (EU) and/or a Member State of the European Union and a third country on the basis of reciprocity aimed at establishing rapid and effective procedures for the identification and safe and orderly return of persons who do not fulfil or no longer fulfil the conditions for entry into or stay in the territory of the third country or one of the Member States of the European Union, and to facilitate the passage of such persons in a spirit of cooperation. Finland and Afghanistan signed a joint declaration on voluntary return in October 2016. Finland is also negotiating readmission memoranda of understanding with Iraq and Somalia. So far, the EU has concluded readmission agreements with the following countries and autonomous regions: bilateral agreements can be concluded with countries with which the Commission does not negotiate a readmission agreement at EU level. In addition to the EU agreements, Finland has concluded bilateral readmission agreements with the following countries: the principle of readmission of its own citizens is generally recognised in the international practice of the Treaty and is also accepted as a principle of the law of international usage by virtue of an existing legal consensus and appropriate state practice. This obligation has been underpinned in recent years by consistent and widespread practice, which has given rise to numerous agreements and declarations.
In addition, the Council of the European Union has authorised the Commission to negotiate readmission agreements with the following States: the negotiations did not lead to a readmission agreement for any of these countries. Switzerland`s policy of signing readmission agreements with countries of origin or transit is in line with the policy of the EU and its Member States that conclude readmission agreements or include return clauses in association and cooperation agreements with many countries of origin and transit in order to manage irregular migration more effectively. A readmission agreement aims to ensure the rapid and safe readmission of irregular migrants to Switzerland. It lays down the conditions for the execution, the procedure and the deadlines for return for Switzerland and the country of origin. Switzerland has signed some fifty readmission agreements with third countries. Under the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the European Union may conclude readmission agreements with third countries for third-country nationals residing in the EU to their country of origin or origin. . . .